Lesson 8


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Read the text carefully. Pay attention to words in the bold print.
Dental filling is also called dental restoration. To treat a cavity the decayed portion of the tooth is removed and then the area on the tooth where the decayed material once lived is filled. Fillings are also used to repair cracked or broken teeth and teeth that have been worn down from misuse (such as from nail-biting or tooth grinding).

The procedure includes numbing the area around the tooth with help of a local anesthetic. Next, a drill, air abrasion instrument, or laser will be used to remove the decayed area. The choice of instrument depends on the individual dentist's comfort level, training, and investment in the particular piece of equipment as well as location and extent of the decay.

Next, dentist will probe or test the area during the decay removal process to determine if all the decay has been removed. Once the decay has been removed, dentist will prepare the space for the filling by cleaning the cavity of bacteria anddebris. If the decay is near the root, a liner made of glass ionomer, composite resin, or other material to protect the nerve may be used. Generally, after the filling is in, dentist will finish and polish it.

Several additional steps are required for tooth-colored fillings and are as follows. After removing the decay and cleaning the area, the tooth-colored material is applied in layers. Next, a special light that hardens each layer is applied. When themultilayering process is completed, dentist will shape the composite material to the desired result, trim off any excess material, and polish the final restoration.

Today, several dental filling materials are available. Teeth can be filled with gold, porcelain, silver amalgam, or tooth-colored, plastic and glass materials called composite resin fillings.

Some problems of dental restoration include:

• Tooth pain and sensitivity which is fairly common. A tooth may be sensitive topressure, air, sweet foods, or temperature. Usually, the sensitivity resolves on its own within a few weeks. If the pain does not subside within 2 to 4 weeks or if tooth is extremely sensitive contact with a dentist is required. If pain around the fillings occurs while biting, the filling is interfering with bite. Dentist will have to reshape the filling. If pain is present when teeth touch, the pain is likely caused by the touching of two different metal surfaces (for example, the silver amalgam and a gold crown on another tooth with which it touches). This pain should resolve on its own within a short period of time. If the decay was very deep or close to the pulp of the tooth, a "toothache-type" pain is present. This "toothache" response may indicate this tissue is no longer healthy.

• Filling allergies are rare. Symptoms of amalgam allergy are similar to those experienced in a typical skin allergy and include skin rashes and itching.

• Deteriorating fillings - if the seal between the tooth enamel and the filling breaks down, food particles and bacteria can get under the filling and there is the risk of developing additional decay in that tooth. Decay that is left untreated can progress to an abscessed tooth. New fillings that fall out are probably the result of impropercavity preparation, contamination before the filling is placed, or a fracture of the filling from bite or chewing trauma. Older restorations will generally be lost due to decay or fracturing of the remaining tooth.

abscess – wrzód, ropień 
cavity – ubytek w zębie, jama, otwór 
composite – kompozyt 
contamination – zanieczyszczenie 
cracked – pęknięty 
debris – odpadki, szczątki 
dental filling – plomba dentystyczna 
drill – borowanie 
excess – nadmiar 
extent – rozmiar, stopień 
fall out – wypaść (o zębach) 
fairly – stosunkowo 
fracture – złamanie 
harden – twardnieć 
improper – niewłaściwe 
indicate – wskazywać na coś 
layer – warstwa 
liner – materiał wyściełający 
misuse – niewłaściwe użycie
multilayering – nawarstwianie
nail-biting – obgryzanie paznokci
numbing – znieczulenie
polish – czyścić, polerować
pressure – ucisk
probe – badać (przy użyciu sondy, wziernika itp.) 
procedure – metoda, procedura
progress to – rozwinąć się do
protect – chronić
rare – rzadki
remove – usunąć
resolves on its own – przechodzi samoistnie
required – wymagany
seal – uszczelnienie
shape – uformować
subside – zmniejszyć się
surface – powierzchnia
tooth grinding – zgrzytanie zębami
trim off – przyciąć, przypiłować do wymaganego kształtu
worn down – starty

Complete these sentences with proper words. One space means one letter.

1. _ _ _ B _ _ _ is necessary to eliminate pain during dental procedures. 
2. The pain will slowly _ _ _ _ _ D _ after receiving local anesthetic.
3. Be careful when you chew and bite as you new filling may F _ _ _ _ _ _. 
4. The sensitivity which you are experiencing should _ _ _ _ _ V _ on its own. 
5. Tooth _ _ _ _ D _ _ _ may deteriorate the surface of the tooth. 
6. Dentist will D _ _ _ _ to remove decayed tissue. 
7. It is _ _ R _ to develop filling allergies. 
8. The doctor will _ H _ _ _ the composite material before P _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ it.

Write commands that you would use during dental restoration procedures. Use words in brackets.

1. (mouth/wide): ________________________________________________________
2. (teeth /clench): ________________________________________________________
3. (head /tilt/back): _____________________________________________________
4. (mouth/rinse/spit out): _________________________________________________
5. (seat/take): ___________________________________________________________
6. (head /not/move): _____________________________________________________
7. (tongue/lift/slowly): _________________________________________________
8. (mouth/wipe): _______________________________________________________
9. (head/to the side): _____________________________________________________
10. (dentures/mouth/out): _________________________________________________

Match terms of common dental problems with their definitions


A. this is a bacterial conditions affecting soft pulp of the tooth. It is manifested by pus accumulated at the tip of affected tooth and throbbing, excruciating ache. 
B. a soft decayed area in a tooth
C. inflammation of the gums
D. condition manifested by toothache connected with direct contact with cold, sweet or hot foods and drinks
E. condition of having stale or foul-smelling breath
F. dental problem characterized by painful open sores which form inside patient’s mouth
G. another name for dry mouth
H. known also as periodontal disease. We can distinguish here 2 types: periodontitis and gingivitis
I. misaligned teeth

Lesson 8 answers Lesson 8 answers