Lesson 9


Logo edukacja1

Read the text carefully. Pay attention to words in the bold print
There are several reasons why some people's teeth are crooked. Some people's mouths are too small for their teeth, which crowds the teeth and causes them to shift. In other cases, a person's upper and lower jaws aren't the same size or aremalformed resulting in either an overbite or an under bite.

Most often crooked teeth, overbites, and under bites are inherited traits. Other causes of misaligned bites are early loss of baby or adult teeth; improper fit of dental restorations (for example, fillings or crowns); too small of a jaw to accommodate erupting teeth; gingivitis (gum disease); undue pressure on the teeth and gums; misalignment of jaw after severe facial injury; tumors of the mouth or jaw; or common oral health problems in children such as thumb sucking, tongue thrusting,pacifier use beyond the age of three, or prolonged use of a bottle.

Crooked teeth can interfere with proper chewing. They usually make keeping teeth clean more of a challenge, increasing the risk of tooth decay and gingivitis. They also strain the teeth, jaws, and muscles, increasing the risk of breaking a tooth. Misaligned teeth make people feel self-conscious about their appearance and affect their self-esteem.

There are various procedures which enable to straighten up the crooked teeth:

  • Braces work by putting pressure on teeth to shift them into a more attractive position. Dentist will refer to an orthodontist, who can choose the best option for a given patient. Often, braces come in the form of metal, plastic or ceramic brackets glued to the front of the teeth. These brackets hold a tightening wire in place. The wire is in the shape the orthodontist wants to see the teeth. These wires are tightened once a month for a period of up to two and a half years, depending on the severity of your condition.
  • Invisalign. A newer and costlier option is Invisalign, a series of plastic, transparent, removable aligners that squeeze the teeth tightly into place. Like braces, Invisalign shifts the teeth into a straighter position.
  • Porcelain veneers. The dentist can cover existing teeth with veneers, or thin ceramic shells bonded to the front of the teeth to create a natural-looking and beautiful smile. Dentist will first shave part of teeth to make room for the veneers and use a mold of teeth to create veneers. The teeth will not only be straighter, but whiter.
  • Tooth Contouring & Reshaping. One of the few instant and inexpensive procedures cosmetic dentistry offers. This "sculpting" process usually involves a combination of scraping off a portion of the existing tooth enamel and replacing it with bonding or a veneer. Cosmetic dentist will remove a small amount of enamel using a drill or laser, sculpt the sides of your teeth, and polish your tooth.

– pomieścić 
aligner – nakładka (rynienka) wyrównująca 
braces – aparat ortodontyczny 
challenge – wyzwanie 
contouring – konturing 
crooked – krzywy 
drill – wiertło 
glued – przyklejony 
increase – zwiększać 
inherited – dziedziczny, odziedziczony 
instant – natychmiastowy 
interfere – przeszkadzać, kolidować 
jaw – szczęka 
make room – zrobić miejsce 
malformed – (adj.) źle utworzony 
misaligned – nierówny 
mold – odcisk 
orthodontist – ortodonta 
overbite – przodozgryz górny 
pacifier – smoczek 
porcelain veneers – porcelanowe licówki 
pressure – nacisk, napór
prolonged – przedłużające się
erupting – wyrzynający
reason – powód
refer – kierować (np. do ortodonty)
remove – usunąć
scrape off – zeskrobać 
sculpt – wyrzeźbić
self-conscious - skrępowany
self-esteem – samoocena, poczucie własnej godności
severe – poważny
shell – powłoka, tutaj – płytka
shave – oszlifować
squeeze – wciskać, upychać
strain – nadwyrężać
thumb sucking – ssanie kciuka
tightened – dociśnięty
tongue thrusting – wypychanie języka
trait – cecha
tumor – nowotwór
under bite – tyłozgryz
wire – drut, drucik

Decide if the following statements are TRUE or FALSE

1. Overbite and under bite are connected with size differences between an upper and lower jaws. 
2. Crooked teeth run in family. 
3. Long use of a pacifier in a baby decreases his/her chances for developing misaligned bite.
4. Tooth decay is as common in patients with crooked teeth as in patients with a proper bite. 
5. Misaligned teeth may affect perception of oneself. 
6. Typical treatment with braces lasts about 2.5 years. 
7. Invisalign aligners are made with see through material. 
8. Contouring involves placing special porcelain shell on a tooth, sculpting it and polishing.

Write answers to the questions posted by your patients

1. “Can I still develop cavities although I have veneers?”

2. “With time, I have noticed that my veneers are not as white as they used to be? How can I restore their shine and colour?”

3. “I know that flossing is very important for my oral care, however I am a braces user and it’s a very difficult task for me. How can I floss my teeth correctly?”

4. “What kind of toothbrush do you recommend for somebody who uses braces?”

Solve the crossword puzzle

1. a dentist specializing in the prevention or correction of irregularities of the teeth
2. a hard, white, translucent ceramic used in production of veneer’s shell
3. a dental appliance constructed of bands and wires that is fixed to the teeth to correct irregular alignment
4. the opposite of straight
5. the term describing a tooth breaking through the gums
6. an implement with cutting edges or a pointed end for boring holes in hard materials
7. to send to the specialist

Lesson 9 answers Lesson 9 answers