Lesson 15


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Read the text carefully. Pay attention to words in the bold print

Bruxism, known also as teeth clenching or teeth grinding, is a habit which frequently occurs subconsciously during sleep. Most people will do this from time to time, which does not usually cause any harm, but when teeth grinding happens on a regular basis it can permanently damage the teeth. The causes of this condition are not clear. Some researchers say that if someone’s occlusion is not correct they will grind their teeth. Others say that it is a central nervous system disorder. Othersclaim it is a multifaceted problem.

Teeth grinding (bruxism) can affect people in many different ways. Some of theshort-term effects go away when teeth grinding is stopped. But some effects can be long-lasting or permanent. Here are some of the most common consequences of teeth clenching:

  • Teeth breaking

As teeth wear, the edges of front teeth and the cusps or corners of back teeth will begin to show microfractures or cracks. These cracks can not be seen on x-rays. This becomes especially important as teeth with these type of fractures will either eventually chip, break a corner, or even require root canal therapy.

  • Sensitive teeth 

Usually a generalized soreness and/or a cold sensitivity develops.

  • Receding gums 

When teeth grind hard against each other year after year, they flex at the gum line and the enamel (which ends thinly at the gum line) microfractures away. The end result is an area at the gum line that may get extremely sensitive to touch and/or cold.

  • Loose teeth

Teeth loosen because of the "rocking" back and forth motion which is typical for bruxism.

  • Periodontal pockets (loss of supporting bone around the teeth)

Sometimes instead of the tooth getting loose, there may be a generalized horizontal loss of supporting bone and localized areas of bone loss.

  • Bony ridges (tori)

Instead of losing bone support – some people actually form "extra" bone to support the teeth.

  • Cheek irritation 

A ridge or line of fibrosed tissue is formed on a side of a cheek that corresponds to the area where the teeth come together.

  • Sore muscles – especially in the cheek and temple area.
  • Headaches – specially upon waking in the same muscle areas mentioned above.
  • TMJ problems – jaw joint may be over loaded and resulting problems occur.

There is not much that can be done to help patients with bruxism. STRESS is a huge factor when it comes to bruxing. In fact the mouth can show stress before any other area of the body. The more stress, the more bruxing and the harder the bruxing is. The second option is an acrylic nightguard. When it is used it provides a correct bite so that muscles will relax and problems in a persons bite will not trigger the bruxing action. It must be mentioned that tooth wear still slowly occurs when using a nightguard. The reason for this is that a person will clench and very slightly grind during the day time when their guard is not being worn. A nightguard is NOT asolution, rather a method of greatly decreasing the damage caused by bruxing. It is possible to alter a bite so that a guard may not be needed – the method varies from case to case.


alter – zmienić 
bruxism – bruksizm 
cheek – policzek 
claim – twierdzić 
clenching – zaciskanie 
consequence – skutek 
correspond – odpowiadać 
cusp – wierzchołek 
edge – brzeg 
fibrosed – zwłóknione 
flex – zginać, giąć 
grinding – zgrzytanie 
habit – nawyk, przyzwyczajenie 
harm – szkoda, uszczerbek 
microfracture – mikroskopijne pękniecie/złamanie 
motion – ruch
multifaceted – wieloaspektowe, wielopłaszczyznowe 
occlusion – zgryz 
permanent – stały, niezmienny 
receding – cofnięty
require – wymagać, potrzebować
short-term – krótkotrwały
slight – nieznaczny
solution – rozwiązanie
subconsciously – podświadomie, nieświadomie
suport – wspierać
temple – skroń
the end result – rezultat końcowy 
wear – zużywać się, ścierać się 
trigger – powodować, wyzwalać ___________________________________________________________________________

Substitute underlined word with a synonym or a word with similar meaning from the GLOSSARY section

1. One of the most common reasons for teeth clenching is malocclusion
2. The top part of tooth may be damaged and chipped and will sometimes need root canal treatment.
3. Bruxism may have both short and long-lasting effects and some of them may bepresent for good. 
4. Stress may bring on /cause subconscious teeth grinding. 
5. Some researchers say that it is difficult to find one common reason for bruxism. They say that this habit may involve many aspects.

Complete the text about night guard with verbs from the table in proper forms.

keep  rinse take
make fit wear



A night guard is a piece of hard or soft plastic or silicone molded to 1)___________ the shape of your teeth. Its purpose is to 2)_____________ teeth from grinding into one another. A night guard is 3)______________ while sleeping and 4)_____________ out in the morning. There are several types of night guards on the market, and most can be placed into one of two categories: hard night guards and soft night guards. Hard night guards are usually 5)____________ of a hard acrylic or another hard plastic substance that is virtually unbreakable. Soft night guards are usually made of silicone or another malleable plastic, and tend to be mushy or squishy when placed between the teeth. Patients must be cautious when 6)______________ the night guard. It should be 7)_______________ nightly in mouthwash or with soapy water and 8)___________ thoroughly before returning the night guard to mouth.

Complete the crossword puzzles

1. A removable, custom-fitted plastic appliance that fits between the upper and lower teeth to prevent them from grinding against each other particularly during one’s sleep.

2. A recurrent, often unconscious, pattern of behavior that is acquired through frequent repetition.

3. A pointed top part of a molar or pre-molar.

4. Lasting or remaining without essential change.

5. Another word for ‘bend’.

6. Synonym of ‘to change’.

Lesson 15 answers Lesson 15 answers