Lesson 2


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Read the text carefully. Pay attention to words in the bold print
Tooth abscess or root abscess is pus collected in the tissues of the jaw bone at the tip of an infected tooth. Usually the abscess is caused by a bacterial infection. Abscesses are typically caused by untreated tooth decay, cracked teeth orextensive periodontal disease. An unsuccessful root canal treatment may also lead to an abscess. It may also develop from bacteria entering a tooth filling andmultiplying there.
One of the most common symptom of an abscess is pain which is described ascontinuous, gnawing, sharp, shooting, or throbbing. There may be a swellingpresent at the base of the tooth, the gum, and/or the cheek. If a tooth abscessperforates the bone and it starts to drain into tissue, it will cause a local facial swelling. Many patients may develop fever and will feel generally unwell. Some patients may even complain of migraine-like headaches as the pain radiates from the infected area to surrounding body parts. Severe aching and discomfort on the side of the face where the tooth is infected is also common, with the tooth itself becoming tender to touch.
Successful treatment of a dental abscess involves the reduction and elimination of the pus by drainage. This is done either by lancing the abscess or by drilling a small hole in the tooth to let the pus escape. Sometimes, if the infection is not contained, an antibiotic is prescribed for a few days after draining the pus to clear any remaining infection. However, in most cases an antibiotic is probably not needed once the pus is drained.
Sometimes the treatment of tooth abscesses requires root canal therapy. This type of treatment is given to restore dead soft tissue of a tooth. Non-restorable teeth must be extracted, followed by curettage of soft tissue.
Teeth treated with root canal therapy should be rechecked at 1- and 2-years intervals to ensure appropriate healing.
Because most dental abscesses are a complication of tooth decay or gum disease, they can be easily prevented. Proper oral hygiene is here a must. This means regular tooth brushing and flossing. Other things that may help include: mouthwashes, tongue cleaning, eating a healthy diet which includes limiting sugary drinks and foods. Have a dental check up at least once a year.
base – podstawa, nasada 
cheek – policzek 
complication – powikłanie 
to contain – (o chorobie, symptomach) powstrzymać 
collected – zgromadzony, zebrany 
continuous – ciągły 
cracked teeth – pęknięty 
curettage – łyżeczkowanie 
dental check up – przegląd, wizyta kontrolna 
to drain – odsączyć 
drainage – drenaż, odsączenie 
to drill – wiercić 
extensive – rozległy 
to extract – wyrwać, usunąć 
floss – nić dentystyczna 
fever – gorączka 
gnawing – gryzący, męczący 
healing – zdrowienie, powrót do zdrowia 
hole – dziura 
to involve – zawierać coś 
to lance – przebijać
to lead to – doprowadzić do
local – miejscowy
to multiply – mnożyć się
must – wymóg
to perforate – przebijać
pus – ropa
restore – odbudować
root – kanał
root canal – kanał korzenia zęba
sharp – ostry
shooting – kłujący
surrounding – otaczający
swelling – opuchlizna
tender to touch – wrażliwy na dotyk
throbbing – tętniący, pulsujący
tip – koniec
tooth abscess – ropień, wrzód
tooth decay – próchnica
tooth filling – plomba
Decide if the following statements are TRUE or FALSE
  1. Diabetes and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) predispose patients for dental abscesses.
  2. Taking certain medicines, such as steroids or medicines for allergies and blood pressure puts patients at risk for developing dental abscesses.
  3. Dental abscesses never develop in children.
  4. Sometimes dentists must drain the abscessed tooth more than once.
  5. Abscesses can be a recurrent problem.
  6. One of the most common symptoms of a tooth abscess is an enlarged lymph node in the neck.
Solve the crossword puzzle
1. The removal of fluid or offending fluid from a body cavity. 
2. An abnormal enlargement of a bodily structure.
3. Without any breaks; uninterrupted. 
4. The removal of dead tissue from a body cavity by scraping.
5. To make a hole in a hard material
6. The yellow or greenish fluid product of inflammation.
7. A secondary disease or a negative reaction occurring during the course of an illness or just after it. 
8. To rebuild.
9. To increase the amount, number, or degree of something
Put the following dialog in order
___ OK, open your mouth wide, please…. Oh, I see what the problem is. Your tooth cracked. There is some redness and swelling at the base of this tooth. I also see some pus. It looks like a tooth abscess.
___ Hello doctor. Good to see you, too. Unfortunately I’m not doing well.
___ It sounds serious. What can you do about this?
___ Oh, I see. Can you sit down, please? Let me have a look at it… Do you have any other symptoms?
_1_ Good Afternoon Ms. Johns! It’s nice to see you again. How are you doing?
___ Yes, I also have a fever.
___ It’s been just a couple of days.
___ We’ll have to drain the pus. We’ll have to also take some X-rays. Please wait here a second. I’ll ask my assistant to set up a date for your X-rays to be taken.
___ I have a terrible, constant, throbbing toothache.
___ Please do so. Thank you doctor.
___ How long have the symptoms been present?
___ What’s the matter?

Lesson 2 answers Lesson 2 answers